Burmese security forces slit the throats of Muslim Rohingya, burned victims alive, and gang-raped women and girls, according to two separate reports detailing mounting evidence of genocide against the minority group.
Human Rights Watch focused on the use of sexual violence in its report on the military's campaign against the Rohingya, and concluded that the depredations amounted to crimes against humanity.
"Rape has been a prominent and devastating feature of the Burmese military's campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya," said Skye Wheeler, a researcher at Human Rights Watch and author of the report.
"The Burmese military's barbaric acts of violence have left countless women and girls brutally harmed and traumatized."
A separate report by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and Southeast Asia-based Fortify Rights documents "widespread and systematic attacks" on Rohingya civilians between October 9 and December last year, and from August 25 this year.
The 30-page report, entitled "They tried to kill us all," is based on more than 200 interviews with survivors and eyewitnesses, as well as international aid workers.
Some world leaders have already described as "ethnic cleansing" the scorched-earth military campaign against the Rohingya.
Evidence gathered by Fortify Rights and the Holocaust Museum demonstrates that "Burmese state security forces and civilian perpetrators committed crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing" during two waves of attacks in the majority Buddhist nation, the report says.