China's city of centenariansOverseas Property | AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE 13 May 2021
Gu bin leans over a desk as he carefully adds strokes to the Chinese character for "fortune," before signing off in a flourish with his age - 104. But the spry great-grandfather is five years younger than the oldest member of the community in Rugao, an eastern city home to more than 500 centenarians and which celebrates its elderly with pride, statues and subsidies.
Calligraphy is one of the many hobbies practised by Gu. "I write poetry, read books and newspapers, and watch the news every day," said Gu, who was born in 1918, in the tumultuous early years of China's republican era.
Decades of a one-child policy has built in a demographic challenge for China, with a low birth rate and the world's largest population of elderly to provide for, while the pressure of urban life is ripping up traditions of filial responsibility for aged parents.
By 2050, the government predicts retirees will constitute a third of China's population and caring for them will cost a quarter of annual GDP.
This week's census data showed China's population over 60 had reached more than 264 million - a five percent increase over the last decade - making Rugao a testing ground for the country's future.
It is dubbed China's "longevity city" for its impressive number of super seniors, with 78,000 people aged between 80 and 99 among its 1.4 million residents - and another 525 over 100.
Temples and parks are replete with the elderly praying with longs sticks of incense, dancing or practising the slow strokes of tai chi.
Older residents gather to chat on cobbled riverside streets, or sit in public squares to sing songs in a city which celebrates its pensioners with a 50-meter tall statue of Shouxing, the God of Longevity.
"Our ethos here is to respect the elderly," said Rugao Longevity Research Centre director She Minggao - who is nearly 70 years old himself. "We believe that to have an elderly person in a family is like having a treasure."
That pride reflects onto the residents. Gu shows off a heavy medal for city centenarians who complete a 100-meter walk, as well a certificate dated 1951 for fighting in China's People's Liberation Army.
Rugao - around 200 kilometres from Shanghai - is surrounded by fields of crops and decorated with stately canals. Locals believe the natural environment has a part to play in their longevity.
Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences speculated in one report that high levels of the mineral selenium in the city's soil could be a factor extending the life expectancy of its citizens.
But after over a century living through China's tumultuous history, others have a more straightforward explanation.
"I still work," said great-grandfather Yu Fuxi, 103, who zips around town on his motor scooter. "I sweep the floor every day and like everything clean and tidy. I go to the market on my scooter and buy what I want."
Yu regularly makes meals for his grandchildren, darting around the kitchen in white cooking overalls.
Across town, Qian Zuhua - two years his junior - is equally motivated helping at his son's screw production factory, matching metal nuts and bolts with his still nimble fingers.
"I'm 101 and my health is good," he said from an apartment shared with his son, grandson and great-granddaughter. "I am happy when I think about it."
The elderly in China are traditionally cared for at home by younger relatives. But the one-child policy created a fast-aging population and a shrinking workforce, putting pressure on working children to care for two sets of parents.
Urbanization, long working hours and high property prices - plus changing mindsets among many younger Chinese - makes pairing tradition with modernity a challenge.
Rugao authorities introduced subsidized or free door-to-door services - health checks, hair cuts and massages - for the elderly. Residents also get a pension top-up that increases with age and a subsidy towards elderly care costs.
But in other parts of China, elderly care is less expansive. "Government-run institutions are in high demand and typically have long waiting lists," said Kyle Freeman, partner at consultant Dezan Shira and Associates.
In contrast, he said, expensive private facilities are mostly below capacity. With many families now made up of one child, two adult parents and four elderly grandparents, Chinese children are being squeezed as they try to care for relatives.
"My son is working in Beijing, so we are the empty nesters," said Wang Yingmei, 85, from the tidy room she shares with her husband in one Rugao elderly care home. "It's actually more cozy than our home, because there is nobody else at home but us."
Residents pay around 4,000 yuan (HK$4,830) a month for their room at the center. That is roughly the average monthly income of a city resident in China - but more than double the monthly income of a rural worker.
Freeman said elderly care could overtake real estate as China's largest industry within the next fifteen years, with health officials projecting total elderly care costs could go from about seven percent of GDP to more than a quarter by 2050.
Chinese policy aims for 90 percent of the country's elderly to be cared for at home, but to achieve that, authorities will need to stir a change in mindset.
"The implication is a return to filial piety in China which took a break, particularly in cities, over the last 30 years," said Sofya Bakhta, a China market analyst at Daxue Consulting.
Gu Bin is quite content at home in his leafy apartment where he knows his neighbors, lives with his daughter and son-in-law, and can indulge his flurry of newly-found hobbies.
"In the past China was poor, we owned nothing. Now I have a place to live, food to eat and my clothes are warm. "Life is good."