|Modest exercise keeps brain ticking
Social contact and regular exercise are key to aging well and living a longer life, according to new research.
In fact, feeling extremely lonely can increase an older person's chances of premature death by 14 percent, an impact nearly as strong as that of a disadvantaged socioeconomic status, according to John Cacioppo, psychology professor at the University of Chicago in the US.
He noted that a meta-analysis of several studies published in 2010 showed that social isolation had twice the impact on the risk of death as obesity.
Cacioppo presented the findings Sunday at an annual conference in Chicago of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The research carried out on a group of 20,000 people revealed adverse health effects of feeling alone, including sleep problems, high blood pressure, impaired immune cells and depression.
Often, loneliness is accompanied by a sedentary lifestyle, which can significantly weaken one's health.
Simple exercise such as walking regularly at a good pace can't just cut the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease by 50 percent – it can also clearly slow down the normal aging process of an older person's brain, Kirk Erickson of the University of Pittsburgh told AFP.
At the conference, the assistant professor of psychology presented new details of a study published in 2011 that involved 120 people aged 65 and older.
With age, the brain shrinks, he said. Physical activity, however, helps improve its overall functioning and, in particular, increases the volume of the hippocampus by 2 percent, which reverses cerebral aging by one to two years and boosts mental capacities.
“For one, this research has demonstrated the brain remains highly modifiable late in adulthood,'' Erickson said.
“Even though the brain shrinks and declines tend to happen it does not seem to be as inevitable ... and exercise seems to be a great way to take advantage of this natural capacity for brain plasticity.''
What's more, it's apparently not necessary to do a lot of exercise to get that result – a “modest amount'' is all it takes, he said.
However, he acknowledged, “there is still a lot to learn. We don't really know very much about how much is exactly needed.''